Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by a single celled parasite called Leishmania and is transmitted by a biting sandfly. (1) The disease is common in tropical and subtropical areas where the sandfly is found such as the Mediterranean basin (e.g., Italy, Spain and Portugal), the Balkans, central and southwest Asia, north and northwest China, north and sub-Saharan Africa, and parts of Central and South America. (6) The disease has now moved to Northwest Italy and North America. (2) Leishmania infantum is the strain of the parasite found in the old world and Leishmania chagasi in the New World. (6) There is a vaccine available and a blood test in the UK if your pet has travelled to Spain or surrounding areas.